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旅游英语 第六单元参考练习  

2009-04-08 13:28:39|  分类: 旅游英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit Six                              

Cuisine Culture in Tourism

 

 

Activity One

Keys to Exercises

Exercise One: Paraphrase the following sentences in your own words, paying attention to the italicized parts.

 

1.      People’s tastes vary greatly based on the different places they come from, the different climates they live in, the different tradition, wealth and personal preferences they have. But in spite of that, they have a common attitude and feeling toward a meal.

2.      The most enjoyable food is the one that is eagerly waited for/looked forward to, talked about, savored, and after that, remarked upon.

3.      These were the true depictions of life, where eating became one of the truest pleasures.

4.      Nowadays, tourists in Beijing can taste Guangzhou cuisine at restaurants where cooks from various regions are employed.

5.      Therefore, apart from preparing food, Chinese chefs should take other matters into consideration when they cook.

6.      The cuisine of Shanghai is as refined and diversified as the city itself.

7.      The country boasts a great variety of cuisines and more and more people can enjoy local dishes even if they don’t live in that area.

8.      The cook must make his/her dishes appealing, with an ideal blending of the color and texture of the dishes.

9.      In such provinces as Sichuan and Hunan, it took people many ages to create a cuisine that is characterized by a pungent and spicy taste.

10.  The look of the dish is as important as the taste it has. Even the rice is cooked to delight your eyes and your mouth.

 

Exercise Two: The words used in this introduction are striking. Read the following sentences from the introduction and explain what words or expressions strike you most and why.

 

1.      obsession: preoccupation, strong liking; used to emphasize the degree of how the Chinese regard their cuisine; event: significant happening, something important; used to exaggerate the importance the Chinese attach on their meals.

2.      A host of culinary exotica: a long array of unusually strange dishes; the word “host” is used to emphasize the whole array of the dishes; exotica is a noun for “exotic dishes”, used to arouse readers’ curiosity.

3.      versatility: (1) many benefits for people’s health; (2) many ways of cooking; Due to the two layers of meanings, the word enables us to make more than one association; feature: here the noun “feature’ is used as a verb, meaning “becomes a special feature of the dish.”

4.      atlas: By using the word, the author regards the different schools of cuisines in terms of the geographic conception, as if each school occupies a certain territory on a map.

5.      typify: represent; serve as a typical example of; embody the essential characteristics of: a painting that typifies the artist's work代表那位画家作品的一幅画;embracing: include; This book embraces many subjects. 此书包括许多问题。

6.      hallmark: a conspicuous feature or characteristic 标志, 显而易见的特点或特征

7.      reveling in: enjoying in making/cooking soups and seafood; The word is used to indicate the degree of obsession with soup making and seafood cooking.

8.      galaxy: originally the word means “any of numerous large-scale aggregates of stars, gas, and dust that constitute the universe, containing an average of 100 billion (10) solar masses and ranging in diameter from 1,500 to 300,000 light-years,” but here the word is used as a metaphor to simply mean “a large amount of”; searing: hot, same as “fiery”, “blistering”.

9.      idiosyncratic: unusual, extraordinary; blister: a case of exaggeration, as if to say that the dishes are so hot that your tongue is burnt to form blebs

10.  potpourri: from French “pot pourri (translated from Spanish olla podrida)”; by using this word, the author seems to show the exotic feature of the Chinese tea.

 

Exercise Three: Read the following sentences and turn them into Chinese, paying attention to the italicized words or phrases.

 

1.      广州人是天生的美食家。

2.      所有这些都是按照特殊的菜谱、由手工精制而成,颇受全球美食者的喜爱。

3.      在那家叫做“野味香”的饭店里,人们能看到笼子里和水缸里各种各样活的野味。

4.      厨师们当着顾客的面烹制他们点的任何稀奇古怪的菜肴。

5.      粤菜还因其荤菜而著名。

6.      这家饭店每天都挤满了食客,空位常常很难找到。

7.      这些菜样样都是粤菜中风味独特的美味佳肴。

8.      因此,称广州为“美食家的天堂”毫不夸张。

 

Exercise Four: Turn the following dishes into Chinese.

 

plain cooked chicken                      白切鸡

braised rooster                                 烧鸡公

roast suckling pig                            烤乳猪

beef stir-fried in oyster sauce         蚝油爆牛肉

stuffed goose                                  酿鹅

crisp-skin roast chicken                   脆皮烤鸡

prawn in crystal sauce                     水晶对虾

braised terrapin with pig’s tripe      龟鳖烧猪肚

conch meat in oyster sauce             蚝油螺肉

shark’s fin braised in soy sauce       红烧鱼翅

 

 

Activity Two

Keys to Exercises

Exercise One: Read the following sentences and explain the italicized words or phrases.

 

1.      be imbued with: be filled with; be rich in; lore: knowledge, accumulated facts, traditions, or beliefs

2.      offset: counterbalance, fight off

3.      impress upon: leave/give an impression of something

4.      spare: not a great deal of, not plenty of, just enough

5.      allow: take it for granted, suppose

6.      take pride in: be proud of, find pleasure in; expertise: skills and know-how

7.      an old-world quality: something traditional, time-honored

8.      hallmark: characteristic, feature

9.      surpass: do better than; take-out: takeaway

10.  share a passion for: be equally enthusiastic about

 

Exercise Two: Paraphrase the following sentences in your own words.

 

1.      Nowadays, more and more people begin to appreciate the well-balanced diet of Chinese cooking.

2.      I took as my profession food stylist and recipe developer because of this lifetime immersion in this tradition.

3.      However, my brother and I didn’t pay enough attention to what our parents told us./ we listened to what our parents say, half believing and half doubting.

4.      In any case, those foods are so indispensable in the American life we led outside our home that we have an intense desire for them.

5.      It didn’t occur to me until recently that my family tradition of Cantonese cooking has gained my recognition.

6.      The recipes I collected and developed show that I am well-informed of the know-hows of the Cantonese family-style cooking.

7.      These facts have gradually come to the fore and led me to an understanding of the implicit meaning of life through my own cooking.

8.      All the dishes were taken neither excessively nor inadequately, and they weren’t eaten to replace any medication.

9.      We can find explanations for the faithful and age-long adherence to the ways certain dishes are concocted and made.

10.  This wisdom is so deeply rooted in the mind of my family that it is difficult for them to put it into words.

 

Exercise Three: In this section, there are a list of cooking methods and ingredients for dishes. Read them and turn them into Chinese.

 

fry

ginger/garlic

生姜/大蒜

stir-fry

ginseng

人参

deep-fat fry

lotus seeds/root

莲子/莲藕

poach

水煮

dried mushrooms

干蘑菇

steam

soy sauce/vinegar

酱油

stew

炖、焖、煨

red dates

红枣

broil

烤、焙、炙

dong quai

冬菜

stuff

酿/填

angelica

当归

dip-boil

sesame oil

芝麻油

grill

烤、烧

lard

猪油

braise

炖、焖、煨

Chinese scallion

大葱

air-dry

风干

oyster sauce

蚝油

simmer

aniseed

八角

roast

烤(肉)

rice wine

米酒

steep

泡/腌

MSG

味精

slice

切片

dried fig

干果

 

 

Activity Three

Key to Exercises

Exercise One: Read each of the following sentences and explain what the italicized part means.

 

1.      operation: business; operation of business

2.      complemented: patched up for each other’s shortages and made their business more perfect; business endeavor: enterprise, business activities

3.      itinerant: traveling from place to place, taking care of the affairs at the front desk; customer traffic: greater flows of customers; more visits of patrons

4.      endured: lasted, continue to exist; accommodating: agreeable

5.      partake of: (colloquial) eat all of …, finish all the good food; blown away: (colloquial) surprised, delighted, shocked, thrilled, stunned, completely overwhelmed

6.      fare: food

7.      We couldn’t have asked for a better, more gracious evening. This evening is the best and most gracious one we ever had.

8.      stuffed: filled; eat to our hearts’ content; replete with: full of

9.      phenomenal: extraordinary, outstanding; was to die for: (a case of exaggeration) was most desirable

10.  patron: customer

11.  honor: accept, recognize

12.  translate well to the home kitchen: (The recipes can’t ) produce the same quality if cooked at home.

 

Exercise Two: Read the Introduction again and answer the following questions.

 

1.      What kinds of information does this Introduction contain?

It contains: (1) General profile of the restaurant, its origin, history, owners and runners, locality, reputation and mission; (2) Detailed menu, including “Appetizers”, “Entrees”, “Hot Appetizers”, “Louis & Salads”, “Soups”, “Scoma’s Pastas”, “Shellfish”, “Scoma’s Sautes”, “Risottos”, “House Favorites”, “Grilled & Broiled Fish”, “Meats”, “Sandwiches”, “Sides”; (3) Awards & Praises, with medals and awards, and “What Do People Say”; (4) Information, such as hours of operation, reservation policy, attire requirement, and other amenities; (5) Recipes.

2.      What is unique of the restaurant’s service and fare?

(1)   From the menu: serving live crab; reputed for serving sea food

(2)   From the awards and customers’ comments: visitors’ choice restaurant; serving best sea food; best unforgettable selection and quality of sea food; food phenomenal, the crab is to die for; wine list outstanding, the view beautiful; service superb, waiters helpful, kind, caring and genuinely professional;

3.      What means does the Introduction resort to, in order to promote its business?

(1)   Use what its customers have said;

(2)   List its awards and medals;

(3)   Offer detailed menu;

(4)   Disclose two of its family recipes to arouse people’s curiosity, then hint that the dish is best enjoyed in the restaurant, not at home kitchen, emphasizing its uniqueness. (“Unfortunately, most of our recipes do not translate well to the home kitchen. We use specific brands and locally caught seafood that are not generally available in retail stores.”)

4.      Why does the restaurant allow one of its family recipes to be disclosed to customers?

To emphasize the uniqueness and unrepeatable quality of its fare.

5.      Why do the owners of the restaurant say at the end of the Introduction that most of its recipes “do not translate well to the home kitchen”?

To allure customers to go to their restaurant, with an aspiration to taste the genuine dishes made with “specific brand” condiments and “locally caught seafood.”

6.      As far as the menu is concerned, what strikes you as impressive or commendable?

(1) Offering detailed information; (2) Emphasizing the freshness of seafood;

 

Exercise Three: Read the above introduction and answer the questions below by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D].

 

1. B              2. A              3. C              4. D              5. C              6. A              7. D              8. A

 

Activity Four

Keys to Exercises

 

Directions: There are many ways of cooking in Chinese cuisine. The following is a list of words referring to the typical cooking methods. Look them up in the dictionary or reference books and turn them into English.

 

deep-fry, deep-fat fry

stew after frying, braise

roast, bake, toast, grill, barbecue

steam

[1]

sauté, stir-fry before stewing

stew[2], simmer

quick-fry, stir-fry, sauté

smoke

steam

boil, poach, parboil

steam, boil

broil, roast

fry, quick-fry

[3]

quick-fry

[4]

fry and stew/braise

braise

[5]

braise, assort

[6]

quick-fry, mix

stew in soy sauce, pot-stew

braise, stew

酿/填

brew, stuff

toss, mix

instant-boil

pan-fry

dip-boil

steep

[7]

broil, bake

bake

marinate, season with soy sauce

cure

软炸

soft-fry

酱烧

braise in soy sauce

红烧

braise/stew in brown sauce/soy sauce

白灼

scald, blanch

铁扒

grill

盐焗[8]

broil with salt

清蒸

steam in plain soup

酒蒸

steam with wine

清炖

stew/braise in plain/clear soup

粉蒸

steam with rice powder

干烧

braise with hot chili

干炸

deep-fry

酒酿

stuff

生焖

braise

干烹

steam in hot sauce

锅贴

pan-fry

干煸

dry-sauté, sauté

水煮

stew, poach

油焖

fricassee

糟溜

stew in fermented rice sauce

醋溜

sauté with vinegar

罐焖

pot-fricassee

生爆

sauté

酱爆

sauté in brown sauce

油爆

sauté in deep oil

生炒

fry

叉烧

barbecue, roast

油淋

drip-fry with oil, scald in boiling oil

嫩煮

scald

炙烧

grill

烧烤

barbecue, roast

串烧

skewer

拔丝

caramelize, toffee

冰镇

ice

嫩煎

sauté, quick-fry

捣碎

mash

磨碎

grind

捣泥

mash

盐泡

pickle

细切

fritter

剁碎

mince, chop

手撕

shred

切片

slice

切丁

dice, cube

 

Directions: There are many adjectives used to describe the taste, color and smell of Chinese dishes. Read the following list and turn them into English.

 

甜的 sweet                       瘦的lean                   肥的 fat                     嫩的 tender

老的/硬的 tough/hard      香的 fragrant            苦的 bitter                 软的 soft

热的 hot                           温的 tepid                 冷的 cold                  脆的 crisp

干的 dried                        酸的 sour                  涩的 tart                    油腻的 greasy

辣的 hot/peppery             腥的 fishy/smelling of fish                         

无味的 tasteless               味厚的  rich/greasy    味重的  highly/heavily seasoned   

清淡的  light/bland           味淡的  lightly seasoned

做得好的 well-done        做得嫩的 under-done            

做得老的 over-done        麻辣的  numbing and peppery                            麻的 numbing爽口的 smooth

 

Directions: There are many condiments used in Chinese dishes. Read the following list and turn those condiments into English.

 

小葱 chive                               大蒜 garlic                       生姜 ginger              

辣椒 pepper                                   干辣椒 chili                     猪油 lard                  

咖喱 curry                               味精 MSG                       白糖 sugar                

红糖 brown sugar                   冰糖 rock sugar                砂糖granulated sugar      

方糖 cube sugar                      胡椒 black pepper            花椒 wild pepper     

食盐 salt                                  香料 spice                        醋   vinegar

番茄酱  catsup/tomato sauce   辣椒油  chili sauce            酱油 soy sauce         

八角 star anise/aniseed           茴香 fennel seed              桂皮 cinnamon         

桂花 cassia                              花生酱 peanut butter              豆瓣酱 soybean paste     

酸辣酱  chutney                      辣椒酱  chili sauce            芝麻酱 sesame butter     

香油 sesame oil                       豆油 soybean oil              蚝油 oyster oil                

菜籽油  rape seed oil               花生油 peanut oil            橄榄油 olive oil       

色拉油  salad oil                      辣酱油  pungent sauce     蜂蜜 honey              

淀粉/芡粉 starch                     高汤 soup-stock               咖哩 curry

芥末 mustard                          蕃茄酱  tomato sauce              肉汁 gravy

果酱 jam                                 蛋黄酱  mayonnaise         甜面酱 sweet soybean paste

 

Directions: Usually, Chinese dishes are named according to (1) how they are prepared, served, looked or smelled; or (2) the raw materials and ingredients used; (3) the artistic names which allude to legends, stories, historic events and other sources. Translate and classify the following dishes into the above-mentioned categories.

 

狗不理包子 Goubuli steamed stuffed bun; dumb-dog dumpling

清炖牛尾     braised/stewed oxtail in clear soup

夫妻肺片     Fuqi ox lung slice

红烧蹄筋     braised tendon with brown sauce

草船接箭[9]    “Straw Boat Collecting Arrows”

麻婆豆腐     Mapo bean curd

西湖醋鱼     West Lake sour and sweet fish

三潭影月     “Three Pools Reflecting the Moon”

烟熏排骨     smoked spare-ribs                   

纸包里脊     roasted pork fillet slices wrapped in silver paper

红焖猪腿    pig feet braised in soy sauce

宫爆腰花     stir-fried pig’s kidney

沙锅肘子     pork joint braised in casserole

水煮肉片     stewed pork slices

重庆火锅     Chongqing hotpot

过桥米线     rice noodle with ham, beef and vegetables in light sauce

东坡肘子     pork joint cooked in Su Dongpo’s style

酱爆肉丁     diced pork sautéed in brown sauce       

家常鳝鱼     family-style eel slices/sheds

鱼香肉丝     shredded pork in fish-flavored sauce

黄酒焖猪排 stewed pork ribs in brown sauce                  

干烧桂鱼     mandarin fish fried in hot sauce

担担面         dan dan mian (noodles in spicy garlic sauce)

罐罐鸡         chicken in pot

红烧狮子头 meat balls braised in brown sauce

酸菜鱿鱼     fried squid with pickled vegetables

叫花子鸡     “Beggar's Chicken”

左宗鸡         chicken cooked in Zuo Zongtang’s style

腐乳汁烧肉 braised pork with fermented bean curd sauce

香酥鸡         fragrant and crispy chicken

麻辣鸡         multi-flavored chicken with black pepper and chili

三味鸡         three-flavored chicken

清笋炒肉丝 pork slices fried with bamboo shoots

五香鸡         spiced chicken

陈皮兔丁     sauteed diced chicken with orange rind

糟溜鸡片     quick-fried sliced chicken in fermented rice sauce

章鱼炖鹧鸪 octopus braised with partridge                    

芙蓉鸡片     chicken velvet

烤羊肉串     mutton shashlik (kabob)

盐水鸭         saline duck

红酒烤竹鸡 bamboo partridge broiled in red wine

灯影牛肉     beef cutlet fried with hot sauce

生爆盐煎肉 sliced pork fried with garlic in hot sauce

京酱肉丝     sautéed shredded beef with sweet bean paste and spring onions

什锦酱菜     assorted pickles

四川凉粉     bean jelly in Sichuan hot sauce

醉蟹             steeped crab in soy bean sauce and yellow wine

清蒸鲈鱼     steamed perch

一品熊掌     stewed bear paw in brown sauce

香酥五仁鸭 crisp duck with five kinds of nuts

羊肉扒         braised mutton with brown sauce

烤乳猪         roast piglet; roast suckling pig 

猪八戒踢足球    “The Pig Kicking the Ball”

龙王献宝     “Dragon King Presenting His Treasures”

缸鸭狗         Ningbo-styled sweet dumpling/Urn-Duck-Dog dumpling/Jiang’agou

dumpling

蚂蚁上树     minced pork fried with rice vermicelli/ants climbing trees

 

Directions: Translate the following sentences into English.

 

1.   Beijing Duck, with its unique flavor, is Beijing’s famous delicacy and is well known all over the world. Among the restaurants that serve Beijing Duck, Quanjude is the most famous and the best in Beijing. Every day, hundreds of people go there to sample the delicious Beijing Duck.

2.   The staple food of Chinese is rice and flour. Southerners prefer rice and ground rice products, such as cooked rice, New Year rice cake, eight-treasure rice pudding, and rice dumpling while northerners prefer cooked wheaten food. With wheat flour, they make steamed bread, stuffed bun, various kinds of noodles, and meat dumpling, etc.

3.   Tastes differ in different places in China: people of Shanxi Province can’t live without vinegar while people of Sichuan have an inclination for chili food; northerners are inclined to eat salty food while southerners are fond of sweet food. To sum up, southerners have a sweet taste while northerners have a salty one; easterners prefer something peppery while westerners like something sour.

4.   As a long-established living custom, Chinese people are accustomed to three meals a day. They always take cuisine and enjoyment, appreciation and health into account. So in Chinese recipes the delicacies not only sound pleasing to the ear, look colorful and bright to the eye, but taste delicious to the palate. Besides, in Chinese recipes there are many dishes cooked with herbs. They are both incomparably tasty and highly nutritious.

5.   People of Shanghai like seafood and they always cook it exquisitely. The reputed dish “Squirrel Fish”, which is made of fish into a squirrel form, is so vivid and bewildering that you will be reluctant to eat it.

6.   Foreign friends visiting China should not miss the chance of sampling the Chinese flavors and enjoying the Chinese cuisine culture.

7.   Sichuan, reputed as the “Land of Abundance”, is rich in natural resources. It has a great variety of snacks of local flavors with all kinds of tastes: sour, sweet, peppery, bitter, spicy and salty. The famous Chuan Cuisine has its birthplace there.

8.   Northeastern cuisine originates from Shandong Cuisine, featuring picked and salted dishes. They are characterized by the heaviness and saltiness in taste, the greatness in amount, catering to the eating habits of the Northerners.

9.   Cocktail is a spirit mixed with assorted alcoholics (such as brandy, whiskey, gin, and ram) and other flavorings. Since cocktail is a kind of mixed drink, it should be drunk as soon as it is mixed.

10.  Usually, the imported wine is marked on the bottle with the symbols showing how long the wine is stored. For instance, “★” represents 3-4 years; “★★” around 5 years; “★★★” over 8 years; “V.O” over 10 years; “V.S.O.” more than 15 years; “ V.S.O.P.” over 20 years; “F.O.V.” over 30 years; “ X.O” over 40 years; “ E.X.H.A” over 50 years.



[1] 把菜肴放在热油里炒到半熟,以备再加作料烹熟 (stir-fry before stewing)。

[2] USAGE: Food is stewed or boiled in a pot with water, on top of the fire. One eat all the contents of a pot of stewed food, while the water is poured away before one eats, for example, boiled potatoes. If an inner vessel is used, so that the water does not directly touch the food, the food is steamed. Simmering is very gentle slow boiling, and braising, which is used only of meat, means cooking slowly in a covered pot with a little fat and water. Frying means cooking on top of the fire in fat or oil. Cooking by direct heat (usually under the grill in a modern kitchen) is called grilling (American English called broiling), unless the direct heat is used on bread or bread-like foods that are already cooked, to make them hard and brown, when the word is toasting. To cook inside the oven is to bake, but a large piece of meat is said to be roasted whether it is cooked in the oven or, as often in former times, over a fire. One bastes a piece of meat while it is being roasted by pouring some of its own juice back over it from time to time, with a spoon. – From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

[3] 略微煮一下, 或加淀粉汁急火快炒(quick-fry)。

[4] 煨烂或用微火炖(stew, braise)。

[5] 菜炒熟后加芡粉拌和(braise)。

[6] 把肉、葱等用热油略炒, 再加作料和水煮(stir-fry over hot fire),或将菜肴放在沸水中略煮,取出后再用酱油、醋等作料来拌。

[7] 微火烘烤 ( bake, torrefy)。

[8] 利用蒸汽使密闭容器中的食物变熟(heat with vapor in airtight vessel)。

[9] alluding to a historical war in which the sage Zhuge Liang helped his King get arrows from his enemy by wrapping his warships with straw (See the picture below). Zhuge Liang was a well-known mastermind who was good at war strategies. Once he was ordered to make 100,000 arrows for the coming battle in only three days. He then wrapped his warships with straw and sailed near his enemy. The enemy soldiers thought he was launching an attack, so they shot numerous arrows at his warships. In this way, he collected (not made) 100,000 arrows.

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