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高级英语 第五课 第九课 第十一课 第十二课 修辞  

2011-06-22 09:38:58|  分类: 高级英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Lesson 5 
Speech on Hitler's Invasion of
the U.S.S.R

Winston Spencer Churchill
simile
I see also the dull, drilled, docile, brutish masses of the Hun soldiery plodding on like a swarm of crawling locusts.
Metaphor
They will be rounded up in hordes.
I see the Russian soldiers standing on the threshold of their native land ,guarding the fields which their fathers have tilled from time immemorial.(P79)
 Means of existence is wrung from the soil...
Metaphor
“Behind all this glare, behind all this storm, I see that small group of  villainous men who plan, organise, and launch this cataract of horrors upon mankind…”(p80)
We shall fight him by land, we shall fight him by sea, we shall fight him in the air, until, with God’s help, we have rid the earth of his shadow and liberated its peoples from his yoke.
…, that process of destroying his enemies one by one by which he has so long thrived and prospered, and that then the scene will be clear for the final act, without which all …(p81)
Metaphor
Churchill ,he reverted to this theme, and I asked whether for him, the arch anti-communist ,this was not bowing down in the House of Rimmon. (p78)
But all this fades away before the spectacle which is now unfolding. (p79)
I see the German bombers and fighters in the sky ,street smarting from many a British whipping to find what they believe is an easier and a safer prey. (P80)
Metonymy
Just as the industrial Revolution took over an immense range of tasks from men’s muscles and enormously expanded productivity.
Alliteration
with its clanking, heel-clicking... (p79)
I see also the dull, drilled, docile, brutish masses of the Hun soldiery plodding on like a swarm of crawling locusts.(79)
…, just as the cause of any Russian fighting for his hearth and home is the cause of free men and free peoples in every quarter of the globe.(p82)

Assonance
…, with its clanking, heel-clicking, dandified Prussian officers, its crafty expert agents fresh from the cowing and tying down …
... The Hun soldiery plodding on like crawling locusts.
...smarting from many a British whipping...(p79)
… delighted to find what they believe is a easier and safer prey. (80)
Repetition
We have but one aim and one single purpose. (p80)
From this nothing will turn us---nothing.
We will never parley, we will never negotiate with Hitler or any of his gang.
Any man or state who fights on against Nazidom will have our aid. Any man or state who marches with Hitler is our foe…(p80)
That is our policy and that is our declaration

Repetition
We shall appeal to all our friends and allies in every part of the world to take the same course and pursue it, as we shall faithfully and steadfastly
…, that process of destroying his enemies one by one by which he has so long thrived and prospered, and that then the scene will be clear for the final act, without which all … (p81)

Parallelism

The past, with its crimes, its follies, and its tragedies, flashes away.

I see... .I see...  (p79)

the return of the bread-winner, of their champion, of their protector.(79)
Parallelism
“Behind all this glare, behind all this storm, I see that small group of  villainous men who plan, organise, and launch this cataract of horrors upon mankind…”
We will never parley, we will never negotiate with Hitler or any of his gang.

Parallelism
We shall fight him by land, we shall fight him by sea, we shall fight him in the air, until, with God’s help, we have rid the earth of his shadow and liberated its peoples from his yoke.
Any man or state who fights on against Nazidom will have our aid. Any man or state who marches with Hitler is our foe…
On the contrary, we shall be fortified and encouraged in your efforts to rescue mankind from his tyranny. We shall be strengthened and not weakened in determination and in resources.
Let us learn the lessons already taught by such cruel experience. Let us redouble our exertions, and strike with united strength while life and power remain. (p82)
Hyperbole
I see the ten thousand villages of Russia where the means of existence is wrung so hardly from the soil.

Periodic sentences

When I awoke on the morning of Sunday, the 22nd, the news was brought to me of Hitler’s invasion of Russia.
If Hitler imagines that his attack on Soviet Russia will cause the slightest divergence of aims or slackening of effort in the great democracies who are resolved upon his doom, he is woefully mistaken.
The past, with its crimes, its follies, and its tragedies, flashes away.
Any man or state who fights on against Nazidom will have our aid.

Rhetorical Question

…, but can you doubt what our policy will be? (p80)
Inversion
From this nothing will turn us---nothing. (p80)
…, but this I will say: if Hitler imagines that his attack on …(p81)

Lesson 9
Mark Twain --- Mirror of America

Simile
Most Americans remember Mark Twain as the father of Huck Finn’s idyllic cruise through eternal boyhood and Tom Sawyer’s endless summer of freedom and adventure.
All would resurface in his books, together with the colorful language that he soaked up with a memory that seemed phonographic.


Metaphor
Mark Twain --- Mirror of America
…, who saw clearly ahead a black wall of night.
The geographic core, in Twain’s early years, was the treat valley of the Mississippi River, main artery of transportation in the young nation's heart.
Metaphor
…, the vast basin drained three-quarters of the settled United States    
The cast of characters set before him in his new profession was rich and varied- a cosmos.
All would resurface in his books, together with the colorful language that he soaked up with a memory that seemed phonographic.
Steamboat decks teemed not only with main current of pioneering humanity, but its flotsam of hustlers, gamblers, and thugs as well. (p151)

Metaphor
When railroads began drying up the demand for steamboat pilots and the Civil War halted commerce, … (p152)
He went west by stagecoach and succumbed to the epidemic of gold and silver fever in Nevada’s Washoe region.
For eight months he flirted with the colossal wealth available to the lucky and the persistent, and was rebuffed.
Metaphor
Mark Twain honed and experimented with his new writing muscles, but he had to leave the city for a while because of some scathing columns he wrote. (p152)
Twain began digging his way to regional fame as a newspaper reporter and humorist. (p152)
Casually he debunked revered artists and art treasures, and took unholy verbal shots at the Holy Land.

Parallelism
Most Americans remember Mark Twain as the father of Huck Finn’s idyllic cruise through eternal boyhood and Tom Sawyer’s endless summer of freedom and adventure.

Hyperbole
Most Americans remember Mark Twain as the father of Huck Finn’s idyllic cruise through eternal boyhood and Tom Sawyer’s endless summer of freedom and adventure.
The cast of characters set before him in his new profession was rich and varied- a cosmos.
Personification
I found another Twain as well– one who grew cynical, bitter, saddened by the profound personal tragedies life dealt him. (p150)
In later life Twain acknowledged that the river had acquainted him with ...
Broke and discouraged, he accepted a job as reporter with the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise, to literature's enduring gratitude.(p152)

Personification
--and when she projects a new surprise, the grave world smiles as usual, and says ‘well, that is California all over.’”(p153)
-an entry that will determine his course forever.(p153)
America laughed with him.(p154)
Bitterness fed on the man who had made the world laugh.(p155)
Personal tragedy haunted his entire life.(p155)

Antithesis
From them all Mark Twain gained a keen perception of the human race, of the difference between what people claim to be and what they really are.(p151)
Casually he debunked revered artists and art treasures, and took unholy verbal shots at the Holy Land.
Where they have left no sign that they had existed --a world which will lament them a day and forget them forever.
Euphemism
Dictating his autobiography late in life, he commented with a crushing sense of despair on men's final release from earthly struggle.

Alliteration
It was a splendid population– for all the slow, sleepy, sluggish-brained sloths stayed at home…(p153)

… and rushing them through with a magnificent dash and daring and a recklessness of cost or consequences...
Metonymy
The instant riches of a mining strike would not be his in the reporting trade, but for making money, his pen would prove mightier than his pickaxe.
Synecdoche
Keelboats, flatboats, and large rafts carried the first major commerce.

       Lesson 11
But What's a Dictionary For?

Personification
The storm of abuse in the popular press that greeted the appearance of Webster’s Third New International Dictionary is a curious phenomenon. (p185)
An article in the Atlantic viewed it as a “disappointment,” a “shock ,” a “calamity,” “a scandal and a disaster.”
The Yew York Times,  in a special editorial, felt that the work would…
The Journal of the American Bar Association saw the publication as ...

Alliteration
--a concept of how things get written that throws very little light on Lincoln but a great deal on Life. (p185)
Assonance
The difference, for example,  between the much-touted Second International (1934) and the much-clouted Third International (1961) is not like the difference between … (p186)

Synecdoche
What of those sheets and jets of air that are now being used, in place of old-fashioned oak and hinges, to screen entrances and exists? 
Metonymy
The Washington Post, in an editorial captioned "keep Your Old Webster's,” says, in the first sentence, … (p189)
in short, all of these publications are written in the language that the 3rd International describes, even the very editorials which scorn it. (p189)
Zeugma (轭式修饰法)
the use of a word to modify or govern 2 or more words usu. in such a manner that it applies to each in different sense or makes sense with only one.

He lost his hat and his temper.
To wage war and peace


Zeugma
Miss Bolo went home in a flood of tears and a sedan chair.
With weeping eyes and hearts
The issue of New York Times …hail the Second as the authority… and the Third as a scandal… 
LESSON 12
     THE 
   LOONS

Metaphor
You could look out the windows and see, through the filigree of the spruce trees, the water glistening greenly as the sun caught it.(p209)
It seemed to me that Piquette must be in some way a daughter of the forest, … (p210)
I tried another line. (p211)
At night the lake was like black glass with a streak of amber which was the path of the moon. (p213)
Personification
The two grey squirrels were still there, gossiping…
The news that somehow had not found its way into letters.
Transferred epithet
All around, the spruce trees grew tall and close-set, branches blackly sharp against the sky which was lightened by a cold flickering of stars.
I was ashamed, ashamed of my own timidity, the frightened tendency to look the other way.
Transferred epithet
My brother, Roderick, who had not been born when we were here last summer, sat on the car rug in the sunshine and examined a brown spruce core, meticulously turning it round and round in his small and curious hands.
Metonymy
 Those voices belonged to a world separated by aeons from our neat world of summer cottages and the lighted lamps of home. (our modern civilization)
Synecdoche

the damn bone’s flared up again
Hyperbole
… her grimy cotton dresses that were always miles too long. (p207)
…those voices belonged to a world separated by aeons from our neat world
Hyperbole
A: Exaggeration by using numerals:
1. Thanks a million.
2. The middle eastern bazaar takes you back hundreds even thousands of years.
3. I see the ten thousand villages of Russia where the means of existence is wrung so hardly from the soil.
Hyperbole
B: Exaggeration by using comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives
1. Sherlock Holmes is considered by many people as the greatest detective in fictional literature.
2. There was never a child who loved her father more than I do.
3. I never saw a prettier sight.
4. You write ten times better than any man in the class.

Hyperbole
Exaggeration by using extravagant adjectives:
1. … where goods of every conceivable kind are sold.
2. The burnished copper containers catches the light of innumerable lamps and braziers.
3. The apprentices were incredibly young.
Hyperbole
D. Exaggeration by using noun or verb phrases:
1. It is a vast cavern of a room, so thick with the dust of centuries that the mud-brick walls and vaulted roof are only dimly visible.
2. The sister cried her eyes out at the loss of the necklace.

Hyperbole
3. They beat him into all the colors of rainbow.
4. Her dress was always miles too long.
5. I was scared to death.
6. I sat there for a while, frozen with horror.
7. She was so beautiful--- her beauty made the bright world dim.


    Thank You!


 

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